Thursday, May 21, 2020

Love And Loyalty Vs. The Pursuit Of Social Class And Wealth

Love and Loyalty v. the Pursuit of Social Class and Wealth in Great Expectations How can an individual dazzled by social class and wealth realize that their materialistic world is not as important as love and loyalty to others? In Great Expectations, Charles Dickens presents the reader with Philip Pirrip, also known as Pip, a working class boy born in the marshy outskirts of London, England. Orphaned at the age of two, Pip is adopted by his sister, who is his only surviving relative, and Joe Gargery, his town s blacksmith. When the wealthiest woman in the area, Miss Havisham, asks Pip to entertain her at her house, he meets Estella, the girl of his dreams and Miss Havisham’s adopted daughter. Both Miss Havisham and Estella show him that he is only â€Å"coarse and common† (107). In his shame, Pip is determined to climb the social ranks in 19th-century England in order to be good enough to marry Estella. Through Pip’s journey in Great Expectations, Dickens suggest s that the ambition to improve one’s social status can prove extraneous compared to their character, if one humbly allows that love and loyalty to outweigh materialism. Pip’s loss of ignorance drives his dreams to become a gentleman in the hopes of one day marrying Estella. In addition, Pip becomes so self-conscious of his humble upbringings that he is embarrassed of the home that he lives in. He reflects, â€Å"It is a most miserable thing to feel ashamed of home..., and I would not have had Miss Havisham and Estella see itShow MoreRelated Puerto Rico and the United States Essay1936 Words   |  8 PagesThough living in the secluded mountains, the Tainos were still colonists of Spain, but at heart were Borinquens. Even though they were a part of the State of Spain, i.e. a legal and political organization, with the power to require obedience and loyalty from its citizens. (Morris, p.12) the Tainos were a Nation or a self defined community of people who share a sense of solidarity based on a belief in a common heritage and who claim political rights that may include self determination, history,Read More The Civil Rights Movements in Ireland and America Essay4811 Words   |  20 Pagesinto the people of N. Ireland. In the logical evolution of an oppressed people a civil rights movement was essential. â€Å"It was necessary to bravely confront our most explosive issues as a people: Racial[religious, gender, class...] hierarchy and the maldistribution of wealth and power.† 1If only for a brief moment we achieved this, at least it happened. We must study the past in order to get to the future. If you dont know where you came from, how can you possibly figure out where you are goingRead MoreHofstede: Cultures and Organizations - Software of the Mind Culture as Mental Programming9246 Words   |  37 Pagesthe word which is common among social anthropologists: this is ‘culture two’. In social anthropology, culture is a catchword for all those patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting referred to in the previous paragraphs. Not only those activities supposed to refine the mind are included in culture two, but also the ordinary and menial things in life: greeting, eating, showing or not showing feelings, keeping a certain physical distance from others, making love, or maintaining body hygiene. CULTURERead MoreMasculinity in the Philippines12625 Words   |  51 Pagesat times, the lives of ordinary males, the state often forms, or reforms, societys culture and ideology to make military service a moral imperative. In the cultural encounter that was empire, colonial armies proved as surprisingly potent agents of social change, introducing a major Western institution, with imbedded values, in a forceful, almost irresistible, manner. As powerful, intrusive institutions, modem armies transformed cultures and shaped gender identities, fostering rhetoric and imageryRead MoreAgency Theory Essay 329591 Words   |  119 Pages33). This negativity would seem to be based largely on principle. Adam Smith, however, in An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776; from Hutchins translation, 1952), provided a rather practical discussion of an inherent problem attendant to joint stock companies—the consequences of owners appointing others as the stewards of their wealth. Moreover, Smith s perspective presaged the development of what would become known as agency theory. He suggested that managers of otherRead MoreMarketing Management130471 Words   |  522 Pagesintroduction Unit structure: 1. Introduction 2. Learning Objectives 3. Marketing Management 3.1. Evolution of marketing management 3.2. The Role of Marketing 3.3. Marketing concepts 3.4. The Marketing Mix (The 4 P s Of Marketing) 3.5. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Ethics in Marketing 4. Have you understood type questions 5. Summary 6. Exercises 7. References 1. INTRODUCTION: The apex body in United States of America for the Marketing functions, American Marketing Association (AMA) definesRead MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words   |  1351 Pages4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 Learning objectives Introduction: the changing business environment (or the new marketing reality) Analysing the environment The nature of the marketing environment The evolution of environmental analysis The political, economic, social and technological environments Coming to terms with the industry and market breakpoints Coming to terms with the very different future: the implications for marketing planning Approaches to environmental analysis and scanning Summary 5 ApproachesRead MoreConsumer Lifestyle in Singapore35714 Words   |  143 Pages25 Chart 9 Chart 10 Per Capita Consumption of Alcoholic Drinks and Soft Drinks by Category 2011............................................................................................ 25 Regional Ranking of Alcoholic Drinks Consumption: Off-trade vs Ontrade 2011 .................................................................................................. 26 Grooming Habits ....................................................................................................................Read MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 Pagesworld? How can companies renew and sustain those factors in the face of the business slowdowns and major fluctuations that challenge the longterm continuation of profitable earnings? As we continue to experience the twenty-first century’s economic, social, and political churning, how will these driving factors be influenced by the brutally competitive global economy in which organizations do not have any particular geographic identity or travel under any particular national passport? What will be theRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesManagement Skills 8 †¢ Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 8 †¢ A Review of the Managerâ€⠄¢s Job 9 Enter Organizational Behavior 10 Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 11 Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 13 Psychology 14 †¢ Social Psychology 14 †¢ Sociology 14 †¢ Anthropology 14 There Are Few Absolutes in OB 14 Challenges and Opportunities for OB 15 Responding to Economic Pressures 15 †¢ Responding to Globalization 16 †¢ Managing Workforce Diversity 18 †¢ Improving Customer Service

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Spoils System Definition and Summary

The Spoils System was the name given to the practice of hiring and firing federal workers when presidential administrations changed in the 19th century. It is also known as the patronage system. The practice began during the administration of President Andrew Jackson, who took office in March 1829. Jackson supporters portrayed it as a necessary and overdue effort at reforming the federal government. Jacksons political opponents had a very different interpretation, as they considered his method to be a corrupt use of political patronage. And the term Spoils System was intended to be a derogatory nickname. The phrase came from a speech by Senator William L. Marcy of New York. While defending the actions of the Jackson administration in a speech in the U.S. Senate, Marcy famously said, to the victor belong the spoils. Intended as a Reform Under Jackson When Andrew Jackson took office in March 1829, after the bruising election of 1828, he was determined to change the way the federal government operated. And, as might be expected, he ran into considerable opposition. Jackson was by nature very suspicious of his political opponents. As he took office he was still quite angry at his predecessor, John Quincy Adams. The way Jackson saw things, the federal government was full of people who were opposed to him. When Jackson felt that some of his initiatives were being blocked, he became incensed. His solution was to come up with an official program to remove people from federal jobs and replace them with employees considered loyal to his administration. Other administrations going back to that of George Washington had hired loyalists, of course, but under Jackson, the purging of people thought to be political opponents became official policy. To Jackson and his supporters, it was a welcome change. Stories were circulated claiming that elderly men who were no longer able to perform their jobs were still filling positions to which they had been appointed by George Washington nearly 40 years earlier. Spoils System Denounced as Corruption Jacksons policy of replacing federal employees was bitterly denounced by his political opponents. But they were essentially powerless to fight against it. Jacksons political ally (and future president) Martin Van Buren was at times credited with having created the new policy, as his New York political machine, known as the Albany Regency, had operated in a similar fashion. Published reports in the 19th century claimed that Jacksons policy accounted for nearly 700 government officers losing their jobs in 1829, the first year of his presidency. In July 1829, a newspaper report claiming the mass firings of federal employees actually affected the economy of the city of Washington, with merchants unable to sell goods. That may have been exaggerated, but there is no doubt that Jacksons policy was controversial. In January 1832 Jacksons perennial enemy, Henry Clay, became involved. He assailed Senator Marcy of New York in a Senate debate, accusing the loyal Jacksonian of bringing corrupt practices from the New York political machine to Washington. In his exasperated retort to Clay, Marcy defended the Albany Regency, declaring: They see nothing wrong in the rule that to the victor belong the spoils. The phrase was widely quoted, and it became notorious. Jacksons opponents cited it often as an example of blatant corruption that rewarded political supporters with federal jobs. Spoils System Reformed in 1880s Presidents who took office after Jackson all followed the practice of doling out federal jobs to political supporters. There are many stories, for instance, of President Abraham Lincoln, at the height of the Civil War, being endlessly annoyed by officer-seekers who would come to the White House to plead for jobs. The Spoils System was criticized for decades, but what ultimately led to its reform was a shockingly violent act  in the summer of 1881, the shooting of President James Garfield by a disappointed and deranged office seeker. Bettmann/Getty Images   Garfield died on September 19, 1881, 11 weeks after being shot by Charles Guiteau at a Washington, D.C. train station. The shooting of President Garfield helped inspire the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, which created civil servants, federal workers who were not hired or fired as a result of politics. The Man Who Coined the Phrase Senator Marcy of New York, whose retort to Henry Clay gave the Spoils System its name, was unfairly vilified, according to his political supporters. Marcy did not intend his comment to be an arrogant defense of corrupt practices, which is how it has often been portrayed. Incidentally, Marcy had been a hero in the War of 1812  and served as governor of New York for 12 years after briefly serving in the U.S. Senate. He later served as the secretary of war under President James K. Polk. Marcy later helped negotiate the Gadsden Purchase while serving as secretary of state under President Franklin Pierce. Mount Marcy, the highest point in New York State, is named for him. Yet, despite a long and distinguished government career, William Marcy is best remembered for inadvertently giving the Spoils System its notorious name.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Theme Of Imperialism In Heart Of Darkness - 1662 Words

The Dehumanization of the World as a Result of New Imperialism In the age of New Imperialism, European nations rushed to gain advantage over ruling Africa, most specifically Congo, to expand economic prospects under the guise that they were civilizing the natives of these areas. The negative impacts of Europe in the Congo are supported in the novel, Heart of Darkness, by Joseph Conrad, who employs his narrative to showcase how the drive for Imperialism stripped away the humane reasoning for colonizing the Congo, as the protagonist is brought face to face with the horrors of this colonization. The novel’s themes are furthered by first-hand account articles that depict the violence that Conrad fictionalized to stress that Europe’s goal for†¦show more content†¦Ugly. (Conrad 36) Here, it is clear that like many other Europeans at this time, the protagonist, Marlow, views the natives often as less than to he and other white men. This correlates to the thinking of the time as other forms of literature held such sentiments. For example, â€Å"The White Man’s Burden† a poem written by Rudyard Kipling during the height of New Imperialism. Kipling discusses the â€Å"burden† white men must undertake to raise the natives of their colonies out of their own destitution as a result of their lack of morals, â€Å"Take up the White Man’s Burden/†¦Through all the thankless years,/ Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom,/ The judgment of your peers!† (Kipling 177). Kipling clearly supports the idea of civilizing that many European nations promoted as their main desire as a result of Imperialism. While many may have believed that, especially missionaries that were created to educate and help suffering natives of the Congo. Most Europeans used this as an excuse to oppress the natives to promote capitalistic goals. Yet even the altruistic missions were tinged by the superiority complex intrinsic in most Europeans colonizing the Congo—most notably seen in a first-hand account â€Å"I might have gone on instructing the natives in religion, but as civilization and Christianity must go onShow MoreRelatedTheme Of Imperialism In Heart Of Darkness1052 Words   |  5 Pagesis is beneath the surface all throughout Joseph Conrad’s book, Heart of Darkness. The book is centered around a sailor named Marlow, who is sailing up the Congo river to transport ivory. Conrad shows the readers the exploitation of the natives by the Europeans for their ivory through the eyes of Marlow. The novel reaffirms Marxism through its ideas of imperialism. Imperialism is a theme throughout the entire book. Conrad kept this theme by portraying it through the imperialistic ways of the EuropeansRead More Theme of Colonialism and Imperialism in Conrads Heart of Darkness1008 Words   |  5 PagesThe Theme of Imperialism in Heart of Darkness       Of the themes in Conrads Heart of Darkness, imperialism and colonialism are probably the most important. While Heart of Darkness is actually set on the Thames River, the events Marlow describes are set on the Congo River. The Congo is the river that brought about the partition of Africa that occurred from 1880 to 1890 (McLynn 13). This event marked the beginning of the colonization of Africa. In 1884, European nations held a conference andRead MoreImperialism Within the Heart of Darkness1143 Words   |  5 PagesImperialism within the Heart of Darkness A phenomenon, The Heart of Darkness, is a classic novel by Joseph Conrad, who reward individuals with their dark nature. The darkness that the characters face within themselves is the anchor towards the main theme of imperialism. Native Africans, around the early 1900s, were victims of imperialism in the novel. The Europeans saw themselves as prodigies and felt everyone redundant wanted to be like them for they perceived themselves as extraordinary. TheRead MoreThe Heart Of Darkness By Joseph Conrad1166 Words   |  5 PagesThe Use of Darkness in Heart of Darkness Everyone claims to be equal, and nowadays people are working hard to create equality regardless gender and race. Meanwhile, race and ethnicity become one of the most popular topics of modern literature. The Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad depicts a story of colonization took place in the Belgian Congo through Marlow’s perspective. In this book, the author portrays the European ideas of civilizing Africa as well as the ideas of imperialism and racism.Read MoreSignificant Elements Of Joseph Conrad s Heart Of Darkness1326 Words   |  6 PagesConrad’s novella ‘Heart of Darkness’ are appropriated into Francis Ford Coppola’s film ‘Apocalypse Now’ in the setting of the jungles of Vietnam during the Vietnam War. As the title suggests, Conrad’s novel deeply explores the ‘darkness’ potentially inherent in people’s hearts. Heart of Darkness is set on the Congo River during the European occupation of Africa. Conrad ex plores the effect of exploitation on humanity. Similarly, Coppola’s film explores the metaphorical ‘darkness’ in Vietnam that causesRead MoreThe Journey In â€Å"Heart Of Darkness† Spans Not Only The Capricious1222 Words   |  5 PagesThe journey in â€Å"Heart of Darkness† spans not only the capricious waters extending our physical world, but also the perplexing ocean which exists in the heart of man. Through Marlow s somewhat overenthusiastic eyes, we perceive the mystery that is humanity, and the blurred line between darkness and light. It is an expedition into the deepest crevices of the human heart and mind bringing on an awareness, and finally descending into the abyss of hell abiding in each of us. Conrad’s use of wordplayRead MoreFrom Civilization to Madness: Exploration of the Effects of Imperialism in Conrads Heart of Darkness and Coppolas Apocalypse Now702 Words   |  3 Pages The novella Heart of Darkness written by Joseph Conrad and the film Apocalypse Now, inspired by Conrads novella, directed by Francis Coppola both involve the departure from civilization into a world of unknown. The protagonists of the stories, Marlow and Willard respectively, embark on a mission to search for Kurtz, a man who is portrayed as an evil genius in both texts. The majority of the plot unravels on the river, as the protagonist travel with a crew on a long, slow boat ride through dangerousRead MoreAnalysis of the Heart of Darkness Beginning982 Words   |  4 PagesWe are introduced to the novel â€Å"Heart of Darkness†, with the words ‘The Nellie, a cruising yawl’, indicating that already at his early stage in the novel, the reader is able to predict that this will be a book set on a boat, and is likely to involve travelling across sea’s. This prediction can be backed up by the lines in the second paragraph, ‘The sea-reach of the Thames stre tched before us like the beginning of an interminable waterway in the offing the seas and the sky were welded together withoutRead MoreShakespeare s Heart Of Darkness1424 Words   |  6 Pages Relevance of Heart of Darkness Alexander Spirovski LITR 211 Professor David Auchter â€Æ' Joseph Conrad s Heart of Darkness contains both relevant and irrelevant elements to today s society. Issues present in the text such as imperialism, racism, and moral ambiguity are still present today but their formats have changed enough in society that Heart of Darkness approaches obsolescence in perspective. Concurrently, the characters and theme presented in Heart of Darkness are scarce in fictionalRead MoreThoughts Of Imperialism In Joseph Conrads Heart Of Darkness911 Words   |  4 PagesHeart of Darkness, what does it really mean, what can it signify? For all it matters, it has no meaning, but is just a phrase. By applying the following schools of theory, psychoanalysis, over analyzing texts, cultural studies which portray how readers consume the text and postcolonial which analyzes the â€Å"losers† perspective it helps to depict the novella of Heart Darkness. By using the schools of theory, it will analyze a multitude of perspective relating to the novella’s t heme of imperialism disastrous

Theories of Intersectionality and Oppression - 1238 Words

The concept that all oppressions are inherently linked underlies the theory of intersectionality that implies interactions of multiple systems of oppression, discrimination, and exclusion. Although we have been exposed to an extraordinarily wide variety of literature throughout the semester, with various standpoints, from very different regions of the world– the one unique concept in which they share is this underlying theme of intersectionality. In their own way, each author points out that we must recognize race, class, and gender as interlocking categories of analysis that together create profound differences in personal identity. The implications of this study provide a new and innovative and effective way in analyzing and understanding the intricacies and power dynamics that play out in not only the United States but on an increasingly global scale. This theory also lends itself to understanding the continual and perpetuating marginalization of women around the world, and how complex and interconnected their experience of oppression is, and why as critical thinkers we cannot discuss gender as stagnant or one-dimensional or merely continental. Stacyann Chin, very eloquently suggests through this statement that all oppression is inherently connected, which is evident through various literatures in which we’ve read this semester. Most evidentially, Dorothy Allison essay, â€Å"A Question of Class,† reveals that there are common elements of oppression and that we cannot viewShow MoreRelatedFeminist Theory And Feminist Theory901 Words   |  4 Pagesfrom the past readings. Feminist theory and intersectionality. I have taken some Women’s studies courses before so I am familiar with feminist theory. Intersectionality is trickier for me as I am a white, female, privilege Canadian woman who has not faced any oppressions for what I look like. The only oppressions I face are for being a woman and there is no intersectionality with having only one oppression. I will explore both feminist theory and intersectionality and finish off with battered womensRead MoreFeminism And The Feminist Movement1006 Words   |  5 PagesIt was not until Kimberlà © Crenshaw introduced the term â€Å"intersectionality† in 1989 that feminism started to look at oppressed group’s needs (Nash, 2008, 2). Intersectionality is a way of thinking that acknowledges that when a person has identities that belong to more than one oppressed group, it impacts their quality of life more negatively. In this paper, I will argue that intersectionality is important in the discussion of feminist theories and activism because it ensures that feminism is for allRead MoreCritical Analysis Of Olivia Popes Scandal1158 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Intersectionality can be referred to as a sociological theory that describes multiple threats of discrimination when a person’s identity overlaps with a number of minority classes in terms of gender, age, race, health, ethnicity, and many other features (Vardeman-Winter Tindall, 2010). In essence, intersectionality is a framework employed in conceptualizing an individual, group of people, or social problem as affected by a myriad of discriminations and disadvantages. The intersectionalityRead MoreIntersectionality Essay853 Words   |  4 PagesBerlyn Valdez WGS 150 October 16, 2017 Midterm Essay Intersectionality The term intersectionality is a very complex word with room for an open range for multiple definitions. Intersectionality is used to understand numerous types of oppressions and discriminations against people. Although, intersectionality wasnt used as a term until the 1980’s by Kimberle Crenshaw, an american civil rights activist and feminist, as a label for the types of oppressions women of color experienced. This is crucial forRead MoreRace, Racial, And The Individual s Self Concept1729 Words   |  7 Pagesideology, captures an individual’s thoughts and attitudes regarding how they think other Blacks should act. There are four types of ideology: nationalist (emphasizes the uniqueness of Black individuals), oppressed minority (focuses on the shared oppression among minority groups), assimilationist (highlights similarities between Blacks and American society), and humanist (acknowledges the commonalities among all humans). The dimensions of racial identity are postulated to interact with one anotherRead MoreThe Intersection Of Race And Sex1329 Words   |  6 PagesIntersectionality is defined by social categories, such as race and gender that have interconnected to apply to individuals and groups, causing an overlap, which has consequently created a system of discrimination and disadvantages (English Oxford Living Dictionary, 2016). Kimberle Crenshaw coined the term in her article ‘Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Anti-racist Politics’ (1889) whereby her main focusRead MoreUnspeakable Conversations By Harriet Mcbryde Johnson1184 Words   |  5 Pagesunderstand the world and help others, and attempts to directly address oppression by arguing against Professor Singer’s theory and assemble a group of diverse and like-minded people for social change. Oppression is the â€Å"systematically related pressures† that set barriers for certain people (Frye 7). It is the exploitation and the marginalization of subordinate groups. According to Iris Young s Five Faces of Oppression, oppression is also the disdain and powerlessness of these groups. Cultural imperialismRead MorePrivilege And Oppression : Concepts That Provides Clarification On People s Experience1739 Words   |  7 PagesPrivilege and oppression are concepts that provides clarification on people’s experience. They both contribute to intersectionality which explain notion that people’s perspectives and experiences differ in term of the categories of identity. Each person may experience privilege and/ or oppression from institutional structures depending on their situations. It mean that systems of privilege and oppression can intersect and a person could experience privilege and oppression simultaneously. These systemsRead MoreIntersectionality715 Words   |  3 PagesIntersectionality of Gender Inequality Name: Institution: Intersectionality of Gender Inequality For many decades, women have experienced all forms of oppression and constant violence that threatened their existence in the male-dominated society. Various forms of discrimination and oppression have been directed to women for decades. Violence directed at women such as rape and battery were seen and treated as isolatedRead MoreEthnic Identity And Cultural Identity1204 Words   |  5 Pagesenvironments should accommodate aspects of difference among students and to balance the diverse cultural norms through their programs, so as to enhance a positive and productive experience to all students. Queer Theory and Students Identity Development The foundational tenets of queer theory are based on the ideas of French poststructuralist theorists (Foucault, Derrida, Lyotard) who posit that â€Å"knowledge and truth are social constructions that reflect the prevailing interests of those who hold the

Hemoglobin Model Free Essays

Hemoglobin model: note the 02 being carried by molecule. Pipe cleaners=subunits Green marsh mellow=iron molecule Yellow marsh mellow=oxygen molecule Orange cards= heme groups (wolfe, 2000) Oxygenated/deoxygenated oxygenated †¢ 02 bound †¢ Bright red †¢ Subunit is in relaxed form †¢ Higher affinity for 02 †¢ Affinity for oxygen is  cooperative, which means  that the affinity for 02  increases with each bound  molecule. ( Ahern Rajagopal, 2013) Deoxygenated †¢ 02 not bound †¢ Dark red color †¢ In tense form which has lower affinity for oxygen. We will write a custom essay sample on Hemoglobin Model or any similar topic only for you Order Now †¢ When 02 binds to  deoxygenated hemoglobin,  hemoglobin transitions from T  state to R state. This occurs  when 02 binds to iron, it  causes a change in the  subunit. ( Ahern Rajagopal,  2013) Bohr Effect Hemoglobin has a high affinity for 02 at a high PH, low Co2. Hemoglobin has a lower affinity at a low PH, high Co2.  At a high Co2, low PH hemoglobin is more stable in the T state which decreases its affinity for 02. Oxygen needs to be delivered to the tissues. Tissues have a low PH. Hemoglobin needs to release 02 at low PH. Low PH = low 02 saturation.  ( Wolfe,2000 ) Myoglobin: wants to store 02 for when tissues need it. Has a higher affinity than hemoglobin. ( Ahern Rajagopal, 2013) Hemoglobin: wants to unload 02 in the tissues. Has a lower affinity than myoglobin. ( Ahern Rajagopal, 2013 )  (Genetic science learning center, 2013) Difference between normal and sickle forms of hemoglobin. Normal and sickle RBC’s at the cellular level.  (Genetic science learning center, 2013) Diseased RBC’s vs. Normal RBC’s Diseased †¢ Have a sickle shape, and are  thick and sticky. Clumps  together in small blood  vessels. †¢ Blocks normal hemoglobin  to deliver 02 to tissues. †¢ Short life span of 10-20 days †¢ Body can not keep up with rbc production leading to  anemia and pain. (Wolfe,  2000) Normal †¢ Round †¢ Doughnut shape †¢ Life span of 120 days (Wolfe, 2000)  (Ahern and Rajagopal, 2013) How to cite Hemoglobin Model, Papers

CRU Computer Rental free essay sample

CRU Computer Rentals is a national computer rental company that has seen rapid growth since its inception in 1990. The company purchases computers, printers, monitors, and other peripherals and rents them out both for the long term and short term. CRU’s sales have begun to increase from the previous quarter, but profitability continued to decline. Although revenue was increasing, the decline in profit warranted further investigation into the root problem causing this occurrence. CRU management needed to take corrective measures to reverse this trend and generate some alternatives that would lead to an increase in profitability. Most of CRU’s customers fit into one of three profiles, which differed mainly on the term of the lease. Large corporations replaced their computers every year to stay on the cutting edge of technology, thus leasing computers for a term of one year. Consulting firms and small businesses leased computers for two to four months at a time. We will write a custom essay sample on CRU Computer Rental or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Lastly, trade show participants rented very short term, typically for the duration of the show. Although CRU’s customers’ needs for the length of a rental differed, they all expected short lead times, usually one to two days, and quick, accurate delivery and installation of products. CRU’s inventory consisted of older model equipment and newer model equipment that they purchased, usually at the request of a client. Since technology in this industry changes rapidly, the demand and prices for older model equipment decline quickly. This leads CRU to sell their old equipment in the open market for their used machines and purchase newer models from the money generated. CRU fortunately has been able to recover book value on these older products in the past. CRU has two main warehouses, â€Å"Mega Centers†, located in Illinois and California and 23 local retail centers across the United States. All equipment at these locations are available to rent, with 90 percent of their inventory held at one of the main warehouses. When customers returned equipment, all of it was sent to a Mega Center to be repaired and/or reconfigured. The flow of orders and equipment through the CRU system was as follows (see appendix for flow chart). A customer initially makes a call to a CRU rental number to make an order. The call is routed to a sales specialist or to one of the Mega Centers. The sales specialist takes the order after verifies the customer’s credit information. Then he/she changes the status for the ordered equipment from Available for Rent (status 20) to Reserve Status (Status 32). After the order was entered into the system, it was routed to quality assurance and picking where the order would print out automatically. This printed order contained the details of the order and any special instructions. An employee would then review the order, locate the items ordered, and deliver the units to a holding area in configuration. Technicians then picked up the orders from this holding area to repair and/or reconfigure them. Once the technician was done, he/she would roll the order on a cart to the shipping department. An employee in the shipping department then reviewed the order, packaged it, and shipped it out. CRU covered the cost of shipping to customers, which averaged $25 per unit. Once the rental term was complete, the customer would ship the item back to one of the Mega Centers with prepaid postage paid for by CRU, which again had an average cost of $25 per unit. All items received back from customers at a Mega Center in the receiving department were classified as either defective (Status 40) or not defective (Status 24). Status 24 units were put into storage to be worked on by the pre-configuration department and status 40 units were put into storage to be worked on by the repairs group. Normally 30% of the items received would go to the repair group and 70% would go to the pre-configuration department. A technician in the pre-configuration department would pick the item from storage to be worked on and inspect it again to confirm that it did not need to be repaired; however, 15% of these units did indeed turn out to be defective and required repair. The technician would re-label these items as status 40 and put them back into storage. If the item only needed reconfiguration, the technician would work on the item and then put it back into storage as status 20, available for rent. The cost of converting an item from status 24 to status 20 was $4. Technicians in the repair group would check an item from storage and determine what needed to be replaced. They would fill out an order sheet for parts needed to repair the item and send it to the parts department. The item would then be classified as status 41 and sent to storage. Once the parts department received the items they ordered from suppliers, they would tape the parts to the machine in need of repair, reclassify the item as status 42, and put it into storage. A technician would then take the item from storage again, repair it, and label the item status 20, available for rent. The average parts cost of repairing a unit was $150, which didn’t include any labor costs. CRU’s key performance measure was â€Å"utilization†. Utilization was measured by CRU as follows: Utilization = Inventory on Rent Total Inventory owned by CRU Management always aimed to keep utilization above 50% and CRU achieved an utilization rate of 56% last year(see Appendix for Calculation). Although revenues and utilization had increased from the previous year and were considered to be at reasonable levels by management, CRU’s profit continued to decline. It was managements goal to find solutions to this phenomenon and to increase profits. CRU questioned whether utilization was a good measure of future financial performance or if there were other measures that may be more appropriate to predict future profitability. In order to perform value stream mapping, which enable CRU to focus on process improvement, that is time spent by each unit in the buffer is calculated . Flow rate of the unit in each buffer is calculated using Little’s law. Little’s law can be stated as I=RT Average Flow rate is calculated as shown in Table 2 (Refer Appendix) The average weekly profit of CRU last year is calculated. From the calculations it is seen that CRU got a weekly revenue of $240,000 and had incurred an expense of $113,130. So they had a net profit of $126,870. Depriciation cost of units per week is calculated as $92340 . So operating expense can be calculated as $34520. From the results it is observed that contribution margin is greater than operating expense. (Refer Appendix for Calculation) We have determined that CRU is a company capable of increasing profits, but is in need of reconstructing their pricing scheme. With total revenues increasing over the last quarter, but profits falling, we have determined that their costs have increased more than their revenues. Although their key performance measure of utilization is important, the best measure for the company to measure their success should be focusing on keeping variable costs down. First, we analyze CRU’s profit/loss when implementing their sales drive . It is given that 600 units out of 1400 were rented for 8 weeks and the remaining 800 units for 4 weeks. So the Revenue was calculated as $256,000. Variable Cost is found to be $158,382. Depreciation is found to be $108,705. Hence it is found that with a sales drive CRU will suffer a loss of $11,087(Refer Appendix for Table 3 and calculation) Now we analyze CRU’s profit or loss without implementing sales drive. Here the Revenue is calculated as $144,000. The variable cost is found to be $67,878. The weekly Depreciation is calculated as $55,346. Here they will achieve a gain of $20,872(Refer Appendix for Table 4 and calculation). Hence it is not advisable to implement sales drive. Two concrete plans that help CRU is to Capture market for a longer period and to cut the shipping cost. We can take a look at the same without sales drive, but instead of CRU paying for shipping expenses, they pass this cost along to the customer. By doing this CRU will get a profit of $58,913 which is 2. 5 times of their profit without conducting sales drive. (Refer Appendix for calculation). As shown above, instead of posting a loss of ($11,708) in the first case, they have a profit of $58,913 in the second case when they are able to eliminate their shipping expense. We recommend management to eliminate their shipping expenses to increase their profit. By decreasing their variable costs, their contribution margin will increase. This will allow CRU to be able to cover their depreciation and operating expenses more efficiently and increase their bottom line. We found that the best way for CRU to decrease their variable costs is to cut out shipping expenses. Instead of paying for this expense, they should pass it on to the customer. As per the options suggested by vice president of sales two calculations were performed. First was by keeping inventory units same. It is found that to meet the requirements, the company will have to buy 520 extra units and 240 extra units for option A and option B respectively and sell 100 units for option C(Appendix Table 5). When profit of three options were calculated, Option A had the highest profit . So Option A can be considered as the best choice (Refer Appendix for Table 6 and calculation). Second Option was to keep flow rate the same. To meet the requirements, the company will have to buy 3738 extra units and 1732 extra units for option A and option B respectively and sell 725 units for option (Appendix Table 7). When profit was calculated Option C had the highest profit. So it can be selected as the best choice(Refer Appendix for Table 8 and Calculation). Appendix Flow Chart illustrating CRU’S Operations Table 1 CRU Flow Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1000 1000 1000*. 7=700 1000*. 3+700*. 15=405 405 405 405 405 1000 Inventory 8000 500 1500 1000 500 405 905 500 1000 Flow Time 8000/1000=8 0. 5 2. 14 2. 46 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Utilization Achieved by CRU Last Year Utilization = (1000* 8) 14405= 8000 14405= 56 % Average Time Spent By a Unit in Each Buffer Last Year Table 2 Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order stored Order at supplies Status 41 Status 42 Status20 Flow Time 8 0. 5 2. 14 2. 46 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Average Weekly Profit Revenue = 8,000* 30 = $240,000 Expense(Variable cost Rate) = 50*1,000(Shipping) +595*4 (pre-configuration) +405*150 (Repair)= $113,130 Profit (Contribution Margin) = 240,000 – 113,130= $126,870 Depreciation = (14,405 *1,000) 36 months (156 weeks)= $92,340 / week Operating Expense = 126,870 – 92,340=$34,530 / week Launching Sales Drive Case 1: Demand increases to 1400 units per week and flow time is same (with sales drive) Table 3 Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1400 1400 980 567 567 567 567 567 1400 Inventory 8000 1400*.. 5=700 2097 1400 697 567 264 697 2800 Flow Time 8000/1400=5. 71 0. 5 2. 14 2. 46 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Given 600 units out of 1400 were rented for 8 weeks and rest 800 units for 4 weeks. So Revenue = 600*8*30 + 800* 4* 35 = $256,000 Variable Cost = 2*25*1400 + 4*980*. 85 + 150*567= $158,382 Depreciation = 16958*1000/156= $108,705 Profit = 256000-158382-108705= $-11,087 (LOSS) Case 2: Demand is 600 units per week and flow time is same (without sales drive) Table 4 Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 600 600 420 243 243 243 243 243 600 Inventory 600*8=4800 300 898 597 298 243 541 298 1200 Flow Time 8 0. 5 2. 14 2. 46 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Revenue = 600*8*30= $144,000 Variable Cost = 2*25*600 + 4*420*. 85+ 150*243 = $67,878 Depreciation= 8634*1000/156= $55,346 Profit = 144000-67878-55346= $20782 (GAIN) Above results shows that the sales drive was not very effective. Average Weekly Profit By cutting Shipping Cost Revenue = 600*8*30 + 800* 4* 35 $256,000 Variable Cost = 0 (shipping costs) + 4*980*. 85 + 150*567 = $88,382 Depreciation = 16958*1000/156= $108,705 Profit = 256000-88382-108705= $58,913 (GAIN) Duration of Rental vs. Various Market Segments In order to solve this problem we will first find computers rented per week. Computers rented per week: Option A: . 6*1500+. 3*1000+. 1*600= 900+300+60= 1260 Option B: . 4*1500+. 4*1000+. 2*600= 600+400+120= 1120 Option C: . 2*1500+. 5*1000+. 25*600= 300+500+150= 950 CASE 1 Inventory size is same Table5 OptionA Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1260 1260 882 510 510 510 510 510 1260 Inventory 8000 500 1500 1000 500 405 905 500 2520 Flow Time 8000/1260=6. 35 0. 4 1. 7 1. 96 0. 98 0. 79 1. 77 0. 98 2 OptionB Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1120 11200 784 454 454 454 454 454 1120 Inventory 8000 500 1500 1000 500 405 905 500 2520 Flow Time 8000/1120=6. 35 0. 45 1. 91 2. 2 1. 1 0. 89 2 1. 1 2 Option C Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 950 950 665 385 385 385 385 385 950 Inventory 8000 500 1500 1000 500 405 905 500 2520 Flow Time 8000/950=8. 42 .53 2. 26 2. 6 1. 3 1. 05 2. 35 1. 3 2 Total number of inventory units: Option A: 8000+500+1500+1000+905+500+2520=14925 Option B: 8000+500+1500+1000+905+500+2240=14645 Option C: 8000+500+1500+1000+905+500+1900=14305 To meet the requirements, the company will have to buy 520 extra units and 240 extra units for option A and option B respectively and sell 100 units for option C. Table Comparing Revenue, Variable cost, Depreciation, and Profit Table 6 Case 1 Revenue Variable cost Depreciation Profit Option A (900*40+300*30+60*25)*52wk =2418000 141998. 8 95673. 07692 2180328 Option B (600*40+400*30+120*25)*52 =2028000 126765. 6 93878. 20513 1807356 Option C (300*40+500*30+150*25)*52 =1599000 107511 91698. 71795 1399790 Therefore, Option A is the best for keeping inventory constant. CASE 2 Flow time is same Table 7 OptionA Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1260 1260 882 510 510 510 510 510 1260 Inventory 1260*8= 10080 630 1887 1260 627 510 1137 627 2520 Flow Time 8 .53 2. 14 2. 47 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Option B Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 1120 1120 784 454 454 454 454 454 1120 Inventory 1120*8=8960 560 1677 1120 557 453 1011 557 2240 Flow Time 8 0. 5 2. 14 2. 47 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Option C Buffer Customer Receiving Status24 Status40 Order Stored Order at Supplies Status41 Status 42 Status 20 Throughput 950 950 665 385 385 385 385 385 950 Inventory 950*8=7600 475 1423 950 473 385 857 473 1900 Flow Time 8 0. 5 2. 14 2. 47 1. 23 1 2. 23 1. 23 2 Total number of units: Option A: 10080+630+1887+1260+1137+627+2520= 18141 Option B: 8960+560+1677+1120+1011+557+2240= 16125 Option C: 7600+475+1423+950+857+473+1900= 13678 To meet the requirements, the company will have to buy 3738 extra units and 1732 extra units for option A and option B respectively and sell 725 units for option C. Table Comparing Revenue, Variable cost, Depreciation, and Profit Table 8 Case 1 Revenue Variable cost Depreciation. Profit Option A (900*40+300*30+60*25)*52 =2418000 141998. 8 116288. 4615 2159713 Option B (600*40+400*30+120*25)*52 =2028000 126765. 6 103365. 3846 1797869 Option C (300*40+500*30+150*25)*52 =1599000 107511 87679. 48718 1403810 Therefore, Option C is the best for keeping flow time constant.

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Music Therapy Effectiveness

Music therapy is â€Å"clinical and evidence-based use of music intervention† to achieve certain goals within a therapeutic relationship by a certified health expert who has successfully completed an approved music therapy course (American Music Therapy Association). Music therapy is a well-established medical care vocation in which highly trained and qualified healthcare experts use music to address social, emotional, cognitive, physical, and psychological needs of patients or clients (Wainapel and Avital 13).Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Music Therapy Effectiveness specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After carefully reviewing needs of a patient, a music therapist provides the client with music therapy treatment that mostly includes playing, singing, and creating music (Whipple 123). Scholars have argued that music provides good communication avenues, which are very essential in solving problems for clients who have difficulties expressing themselves (Whipple 94). Music therapy is also essential in facilitating treatment, increasing motivation, expressing feeling, and providing patients with emotional support necessary to promote good health (American Music Therapy Association). Apart from providing people with entertainment, music is widely used for treatment (Whipple 94). Because of this feature, music therapy is considered as â€Å"an art and a science† (Whipple 94). In a hospital setting, clients are referred for music therapy session by other doctors after carefully assessing their condition and healthcare needs. On the other hand, clients can also choose music therapy without necessary being referred by a health expert; this is known as self-referral (American Music Therapy Association). Music therapists are almost found everywhere especially in healthcare centers and they play a vital role in helping patients with special needs to improve communication and motor s kills (Wainapel and Avital 124). Music therapists also work with elderly people and they are useful in helping them to cope with life at old age. Music therapy and stroke patients Music can act as stroke therapy especially when combined with other treatment techniques (Wainapel and Avital 93). In a number of cases, music therapists have assisted stroke victims to recover. Scholar and researchers around the world have proved that music has a great effect on the human brain. According to research, music is able to â€Å"affect human emotions and social interaction† (Wainapel and Avital 92). In fact, research has proved beyond doubt that music is able to reduce stress, improve the general mood, and decrease the level of depression in human beings (American Music Therapy Association). Most recent studies have showed that music can help in reducing negative feeling hence improving clients’ motivation (Whipple 99).Advertising Looking for case study on alternative medici ne? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Health experts have also argued that when music is combined with other traditional treatments techniques, it can facilitate faster recovery of stroke patients. This is because music has shown ability to improve emotional and motivation for patients (Wainapel and Avital 123). A study conducted recently showed that, when music is incorporated in therapy session of a stroke patient, such a patient is likely to recover faster than when exercise is used alone for treatment (Koen 16). In addition to this, research has shown that stroke patients become more involved in therapy sessions once music is incorporated in the treatment program; this is the motivational aspect of music (Wainapel and Avital 111). Wainapel and Avital argues that music therapy helps in clients’ social functioning therefore motivating them to participate more in the rehabilitation process (265). Different researchers have su pported that when music is used together with traditional therapy, it is able to help stroke patient deal with emotional and social deficits that arise from stroke and hence speeding recovery of such patients (Koen 29). Moreover, music has shown to improve motor skills for stroke patients. Different rhythms produced by music are responsible in stimulating the auditory nerves in the human sensory organ (Goodman 37). Once music therapy is combined with traditional therapy during patients’ rehabilitation, it improves recovery process enabling the patients to walk. The outcomes of combining therapy session with music therapy have been studied extensively. In fact, research has shown that when stroke patient receive music therapy especially learning how to play instruments such as piano and guitar, they tend to improve motor skills within a short period (Goodman 37). In addition, music therapy enhances communication by improving speech for stroke patients (Wainapel and Avital 102) . Combination of music therapy in the rehabilitation process of stroke patients really helps in developing speech. In a study conducted by American Medical Association, stroke patients were divided into two groups. One group received traditional therapy only while the other group received traditional therapy combined with music therapy. Under observation, the two groups continued receiving therapy for specific period. The group that received traditional therapy combined with music therapy showed quick recovery rates than the one that did not receive music therapy.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Music Therapy Effectiveness specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The patient receiving traditional therapy and music therapy showed great improvement in speech and communication since they were regularly singing, rapping, and chanting (Goodman 27). Such exercises (singing, chanting, and rapping) have proved to improve m outh muscle recovery for stroke patients. Why music therapy is effective in treating stroke patients and others I believe music is very helpful in improving health. Generally, stroke patients experience walking difficulties, communication problems, headaches, numbness, and visual problems (Goodman 42). On the other hand, music therapy has proved to facilitate muscle recovery, speech, motivational, and mood among others problems (Goodman 7). Activities such as playing guitar, piano, or a drum can facilitate muscle movements for stroke patients. In addition to this, music that contains certain message can enhance cognitive development for patients (Wainapel and Avital 121). As such, activities such as writing lyrics and performing creative music can help stroke patients and others to improve their mental state. On the other hand, activities that allow movement of mouth muscles such as singing, rapping, and chanting can be of great help to stroke patients who have speech problems (Amer ican Music Therapy Association). Finally, since music has the ability to affect human moods and feelings, once patients are engaged in activities that provides aesthetic qualities of music, they tend to improve their moods and motivation hence improving the general health (Goodman 23). In conclusion, music therapy has the ability to improve the quality of life. This is because music has great effect on the human brain (Whipple 112). In fact, music has certain form of effect on emotions that in turns triggers a certain response in the human brain (Wainapel and Avital 124). Patients who have incurred injuries in the brain or have brain problems also appear to respond to music therapy. Because of this, music therapists have continued using different music rhythms to organize the brain hence helping patients with disabilities to respond to other treatment techniques and therefore promoting fast recovery (Wainapel and Avital 124). Because of its vital role in the healthcare sector, music therapy as a discipline is found in different settings including schools, hospitals, correctional centers, and nurseries among others (Goodman 23). When combined with other treatment models, music therapy can play a vital role in recovery of stroke patients, clients with heart problems, and epilepsy among others. As such, music therapy can greatly improve the quality of life.Advertising Looking for case study on alternative medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited American Music Therapy Association. What is Music Therapy. 2012. Web. https://www.musictherapy.org/about/musictherapy/ Goodman, Doron (2011). Music Therapy Education and Training: From Theory to  Practice. Illinois: Charles Thomas Press, 2011. Print. Koen, Benjamin. The Oxford Handbook of Medical Ethnomusicology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print. Wainapel, Stanley, and Avital Fast. Alternative Medicine and Rehabilitation. New York: Demos Medical Publishing, 2003. Print. Whipple, Jennifer. Music in intervention for children and Adolescents with Autism: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 41. 2 (2004): 90–156. Print. This case study on Music Therapy Effectiveness was written and submitted by user Perla Erickson to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.